At possibly no other time in history have the living
been so preoccupied with the dead as in the Victorian era. It was during this
period that postmortem photography (also known as memorial portraiture,
mourning photography, or memento mori )
thrived. Postmortem photography, the practice of photographing the recently
deceased, was, in fact, an extremely prevalent form of photography in the
Victorian era; more photographs of this type were taken than of any other
single type of photography for the time period.
Memorial portraits did not begin with photography, long
before the invention of even the early camera obscura,
paintings of the deceased occurred. The clergy of the sixteenth century were
often painted immediately following death, usually sitting up, or lying, in
bed. In the early nineteenth century, it was customary to paint the portraits
of wealthy young children whom had died, usually illustrating the child alive,
but with a symbol of some sort to indicate death.
The invention of the daguerreotype, the first
commercially practical photographic process in 1839, made portraiture much
more mainstream. Although the majority could not afford to commission an artist
to capture their portrait, more could afford to sit for a photographic
session. Although, like paintings, the daguerreotype could not be reproduced,
it was much faster than sitting for a
painting, requiring only 10 -15 minutes in bright lighting. The more moderate
cost and time involved offered middle-class Victorians the means to memorialize
their deceased relatives.
A daguerreotype was very decorative. The photo image is
on a silver clad copper sheet which is attached to a sheet of glass by a
foil-like brass decorative frame. These photographs offered families a
cherished keepsake to remember their lost loved ones by. They
served to preserve the image of the deceased in a way that had not
previously been available to the majority of Victorians. Most people of that
time period never had a portrait painted, or even a photograph taken, in
their entire lives.
Though more affordable than a commissioned painted
portrait, at $5.00 for a daguerreotype, it was still more than a weeks pay
for most people. In most cases, a postmortem photograph might be the only
image of the deceased that the family ever had.
Especially common are postmortem photographs of infants and young children.
Victorian era childhood mortality rates were extremely high, and especially in
the case of very young children, most families would never have had an image to
remember their lost child by, were it not for these memorial portraits.
1854 saw the advancement in photography of color-tinted
ambrotypes, thin negative images on glass made to appear as a positive by
showing them against a black background. Ambrotypes sold at less than
half the price of a daguerreotype. Tintypes, introduced in 1856 and made of thin
black iron, were cheaper yet. Sold for a penny or less, tintypes made
photography universally available. With a greater demand for their work,
postmortem photographers began to experiment by “enhancing” the effect of life
in memorial portraits; methods such as propping the subject’s eyes open,
painting eyes onto the subject’s closed lids, or painting pupils onto the
photographic print were utilized. A rosy tint could even be added later to the
cheeks of the corpse on a tintype. Interestingly, as the costs involved with
photography itself decreased, the price for a postmortem photograph actually
increased, indicating its value and continued popularity.
Early postmortem photographs are usually close-ups of the
face, or full-body shots, and rarely include a coffin. The subject was often
depicted as if asleep, but another popular practice was to arrange the subject
to appear more lifelike, including bracing or tying the corpse into a standing
position, or supporting the corpse on the bodies of other family members in the
portrait. Children were often shown lying on a couch or in a bed, often with a
favorite toy. It was common to photograph very young children with a family
member, frequently the mother, but often with older siblings. Adults were more
commonly posed in chairs or even braced and tied onto specially-designed
By 1859, a new photographic process, producing the carte de visite or CDV had become
widespread. The CDV was a small photograph, usually made of an albumen print -a
thin paper photograph mounted on a thicker paper card. With a CDV, multiple
prints could be made from a single negative; this meant that copies of the
postmortem photograph could be mailed to relatives. Surviving families were
proud of these images; hanging them in their homes, sending copies to friends
and relatives (who may have never seen the deceased before the death), wearing
them as lockets, or carrying them as pocket mirrors.
By the early 1870s, cartes de visite
were completely overthrown by “cabinet cards,” which were also usually albumen
prints, but larger, mounted on cardboard backs measuring 4½ by 6½ inches.
The official practice of postmortem photography began to
fade in the early twentieth century. Kodak introduced the Brownie camera and
“snapshot” photography became a mass phenomenon; photos became more
commonplace, and viewed much less as works of art. Death also became sparser,
as health care and medical knowledge gained ground. Rather than embracing
mortality, society began to shun any reminders of it. Up until this time, most
funerals had taken place at home, in the parlor, or “death room”. As more and
more funerals began to take place in the new funeral parlors, the home parlor
became known as the “living room”, and in 1910, the Ladies Home Journal
declared the “death room” to be a term of the past.
New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie (R)
announced he's running for president in 2016.
Christie told supporters of his
plans in a phone call Tuesday morning, according to NBC and the AP.
Christie made a public announcement
Tuesday afternoon at Livingston High School, his alma mater, in Livingston, New Jersey.
"I am now ready to fight for
the people of the United States of America," Christie said at the public
He praised his home state during his
speech, sharing how working as governor inspired him to run for president.
Christie also took hits at lawmakers in Washington, including President Barack
Obama, claiming a lack of productivity from Congress is giving Americans
"Both parties have failed our
country... both parties have led us to believe that America, a country that was
built on compromise -- that compromise is somehow a dirty word," Christie
"We need to have the courage to
choose, we need to have the courage to stand up and say 'enough,'"
Christie, a tough-talking former
federal prosecutor whose reputation for political bullying was reinforced by a
George Washington Bridge lane-closing scandal last year, has served as New
Jersey governor since January 2010, winning election twice in a state where
Democrats greatly outnumber Republicans.
He notably led the state during
catastrophic damage from Hurricane Sandy in 2012. Christie's favorability
rating among votersskyrocketed after he made himself visible through interviews, press conferences
and tours of storm damage during the disaster.
Christie focused on his state rather
than the presidential election that took place days after New Jersey's shore
was ravaged by the storm. HuffPost reported in November 2012 Christie turned down an invitation to appear at an event with Republican
presidential candidate Mitt Romney days ahead of the election. Instead,
Christie was seen that October praising President Barack
Obamafor responsiveness and "leadership" in the storm's aftermath.
In an October 2012 interview with
Fox News, Christie said he didn't "give a damn about presidential
politics" in the wake of the storm.
"I have got a job to do here in
New Jersey that is much bigger than presidential politics. And I could care
less about any of that stuff," Christie said
Christie was elected chairman of the Republican Governors Association in November 2013.
He worked within that role to raise money and contribute to the campaigns of
Republican governors across the U.S., many of whomwonin the 2014 midterm elections.
While serving as chair of the
governors association, Christie held prep sessions on foreign policy with
officials, business leaders and academics in an attempt to ready himself for a
White House run, according The Associated
"I'm not everybody's cup of
tea, but I'm not in this business to get elected to prom king. My job is to
lead, and that's what I try to do," Christie said in 2014, according to the AP.
His image suffered a major blow in 2014, when it was revealed members of his
administration, including his deputy chief of staff, were involved in a plot to cause traffic jams near the
George Washington Bridge to retaliate against a mayor who hadn't supported
Christie's 2013 re-election. Dubbed "Bridgegate," the controversy
caused Christie, who had enjoyed high favorability ratings, to see his negatives rise sharply.
Christie has also faced criticism
for reversing his position recently on Common Core education standards.
Christie initially supported the standards but said recently that he no longer
supports them because of how they've played out in his state.
According to HuffPost Pollster, Christie is in the middle of the pack of GOP presidential
Here's some of what Wikipedia has to say about Mr. Oinky... The bolding is mine.
Christie has stated that he believes
that the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection is too big and is "killing business" with permit
delays and indiscriminate fines. He announced that, if elected, the agency
would be his first target for government reduction: he would reduce its
workforce and strip it of its fish and wildlife oversight.
On May 26, 2011 Christie announced
he would pull the state out of Regional
Greenhouse Gas Initiative.
This was challenged in court which ruled in March 2014 that Christie had acted
illegally in doing so since state regulations do not permit it. His
administration is seeking to repeal the rules.
Christie has rejected permanent bans
(fracking) in New Jersey and vetoed measures that would ban the process and
disposal of hydraulic fracturing waste in the State. New Jersey has few proven shale reserves and the process is
not practiced there. Christie argued that the vetoed Senate Bill (S253) was
premature because of an ongoing study to be completed in 2014 and would
discriminate against other states, a violation of the Dormant Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution. Supporters of legislation have said that hydraulic fracturing
waste from Pennsylvania makes its way
into New Jersey for treatment, although how much is not clear. They also
criticized Christie's legal analysis saying that the Office of Legislative
Services have said that the bill is constitutional.
In January 2013 Christie vetoed a New
Jersey Legislature bill that
would have raised the minimum wage from $7.25 to $8.50 per hour. The following November, the
issue was placed on the ballot as a constitutional amendment referendum,
passing with 61% of the vote.
As of 2013 New Jersey had a pig
population of about 9,000, none of which, according to the Humane Society,
are kept in gestation crates which immobilize pregnant pigs for most of their lives. In
June 2013, Christie vetoed S1921, a bill to prohibit their use in the state
which had passed in the General
Assembly with a
vote of 60-5 and the Senate
29-4. A 2013 survey by Mason-Dixon Polling & Research Inc. showed 91% of New Jersey voters supported the legislation.
An attempt to override the veto did not come to a vote. In
October 2014 the New
Jersey Legislature adopted
S998 which would have prohibited use of the crates with a vote in the Senate of
32-1 and in the Assembly 53-13 (with 9 abstentions). While campaigning in Iowa in November in a
conversation with the former president of the Iowa Pork Producers Association
indicated he would veto the bill. He did so on November 27, 2014. The bill's
sponsor has vowed to override it.
While serving as U.S. Attorney for
the District of New Jersey, Christie stressed that simply "[b]eing in this
country without proper documentation is not a crime," but rather a civil
wrong; and that undocumented people are not criminals unless they have
re-entered the country after being deported. As such, Christie stated,
responsibility for dealing with improperly documented foreign nationals lies
withU.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, not the U.S. Attorney's Office.
Christie has been critical about section 287(g) of the
Immigration and Nationality Act, enacted in 1996, which can be used to grant
local law enforcement officers power to perform immigration law enforcement
In December 2013 Christie signed
legislation allowing unauthorized immigrants who attend high school for at
least three years in New Jersey and graduate to be eligible for the resident
rates at state college and universities and community colleges.
Christie has said that he favored
New Jersey's law allowing same-sex couples to form civil unions, but would veto any bill legalizing same-sex
marriage in New Jersey, saying,
"I also believe marriage should be exclusively between one man and one
woman.... If a bill legalizing same sex marriage came to my desk as Governor, I
would veto it." He has expressed concern with the recognition of civil
unions, however, and has strongly advocated for more stringent laws to protect
and strengthen civil unions. On February 13, 2012, the State Senate passed a
bill legalizing same-sex marriage by a vote of 24 to 16, and on February 16,
the Assembly passed it by a vote of 42 to 33, with three Republicans and
one Democrat not voting, and one seat temporarily vacant. In neither house was
the bill passed by a veto-proof majority. Governor Christie vetoed the bill the
next day and called for a constitutional amendment for same-sex marriage to be
presented to the voters as a ballot referendum. He also called for creation of
an ombudsman to ensure compliance with the state's existing civil union law.
Christie's veto was overturned in a
court decision in the Garden State Equality v. Dow
case, in which the judge stated New Jersey was "...violating the mandate
of Lewis and the New Jersey Constitution's equal protection guarantee".
Following the decision, the Christie administration immediately asked the state
Supreme Court to grant a stay of the decision pending appeal, which was denied on October
18, 2013 in a 7–0 decision of the court which stated that it could "find
no public interest in depriving a group of New Jersey residents of their
constitutional right to equal protection while the appeals process
unfolds". Three days later Christie withdrew the state's appeal.
On September 21, 2012, Christie
signed Assembly Bill No. 2647 (A-2647) into law that requires employers to post
and distribute notice of employees' rights to gender-equal pay, but
conditionally vetoed other gender parity bills, requesting revision.
In his early political career,
Christie was pro-choice stating in an interview that "I would call myself
... a kind of a non-thinking pro-choice person, kind of the default
position". Later on Christie evolved his position to be against abortion:
"I am pro-life. Hearing the strong heartbeat of my unborn daughter 14
years ago at 13 weeks gestation had a profound effect on me and my
beliefs." He has stated, with respect to his opposition to abortion, that
he would not use the governor's office to "force that down people's
throats", but does favor restrictions on abortion such as banning partial-birth abortion,
requiring parental notification, and imposing a 24-hour waiting period.
In 2014, campaigning in Alabama for
incumbent governor Robert Bentley, Christie stated that he was the first "pro-life
governor" elected in New Jersey since Roe v. Wadein 1973.
He also stated that he had vetoed funding for Planned
Parenthood five times
as governor. In March 2015, Christie joined other potential 2016 Republican
presidential candidates in endorsing a ban on abortions after 20 weeks of
marijuana and legalization for recreational use
The "New Jersey Compassionate
Use Medical Marijuana Act" was enacted in January 2010. As of 2013 New
Jersey is one of 20 states where medical marijuana is available. In August 2013 Christie signed a bill to ease
restrictions for children in the program. Christie is opposed to legalization
of recreational marijuana use. He believes marijuana to be a gateway drug
and that taxes from its sale are "blood money". Christie said he
would "crack down" on states that have ended the prohibition of cannabisif he were president .
and gay conversion therapy
Christie believes that homosexuality
is innate, having said “If someone is born that way, it’s very difficult to say
then that that’s a sin.” On August 19,
2013, Christie signed a bill outlawing gay conversion therapyin children, making New Jersey the second state to
institute such a law. The law was challenged in the courts, with Christie, in
his official capacity as governor, named an appellee. In September 2014, a
panel of the 3rd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the law, saying it did
not violate free speech or religious rights.
Christie responded to calls by
President Obama to prevent the spread of measles by saying that parents should
have a choice. The governor's office said that he "believes vaccines are
an important public health protection and with a disease like measles there is
no question kids should be vaccinated", but that he was unaware of a free
national program to provide new parents with a vaccines checklist.
On December 20, 2010, Christie
signed a letter ordering the release of Brian Aitken,
who had been sentenced to seven years for transporting three guns within the
Christie has said that each state
has the right to determine firearms laws and that the federal government should
not interfere in the making of guns laws for New Jersey.
When announcing his candidacy in 2009 he said supported strict and aggressive enforcement
of the state's current gun laws. In 2013 he chose not to defend a legal
challenge to the state's most stringent gun law which requires individuals to
prove an urgent threat of violence before getting permits to carry handguns. On
July 2, 2014 Christie vetoed legislation that would have reduced the allowed
legal size of ammunition
he re-wrote it, proposing a new standard forinvoluntary
commitment of people
who are not necessarily deemed dangerous “but whose mental illness, if
untreated, could deteriorate to the point of harm” as well as other forms of
involuntary mental health treatments.
Christie had previously vetoed proposed
legislation that would bar the state pension fund from investing in companies
that manufacture or sell assault firearms for civilian use and a bill to
prohibit the sale of .50-caliber rifles to civilians.
Christie has raised tolls and fares,
which he calls “user fees” on the New Jersey Turnpike, Garden State Parkway,
Hudson River crossings and NJ Transit buses and trains during his
administration to fund projects throughout the state. In 2014, Christie
authorized the increase of numerous other fees charged by the state for various
licensing and administrative fees.
In 2010, Christie cancelled theAccess
to the Region's Core project,
which would have constructed two new tunnels under the Hudson River and a new
terminal station in New York City for NJ Transit commuter trains. He cited
possible cost overruns as the reason for his decision. Proponents of the project said it would have created 6,000
construction jobs per year and 45,000 secondary jobs once complete. After the
cancellation, New Jersey had to return $95 million to the federal government,
and used $1.8 billion of Port Authority of New York and New Jerseymoney from the project budget to pay for repairs to the Pulaski Skyway,
since the New Jersey Transportation Trust Fund that should fund such
maintenance is effectively bankrupt. The termination of the project has made
the need for increased rail capacity under the Hudson River more urgent, and Amtrak's
Gateway Projectto bore new tunnels is currently unfunded.
On December 28, 2012, the U.S. Senate
approved an emergency relief bill to provide $60 billion for states affected by Hurricane Sandy.
The House did not vote until the next session on Jan. 3. On January 2, Christie
criticized the delay as "selfishness and duplicity", and blamed the
House Republican leadership.
A bill for relief was passed in the House on January 15.
Starting in 2014, the U.S.
Department of Justice started
an investigation of Christie for making state grants of Hurricane Sandry relief
funds to New Jersey cities conditional on support for other projects.